Revision. Two pharmacists making medicines revision in a drugstore

The Journey of a Drug: From R&D to Your Pharmacy Shelf

Every drug that reaches your pharmacy shelf undergoes a remarkable journey, traversing through various stages of research, development, manufacturing, and regulation. This journey is a testament to scientific innovation and a demonstration of stringent quality standards and regulatory compliance.

In this article, we delve into the comprehensive process of how a drug evolves from its conception in research and development (R&D) laboratories to its availability on the shelves of pharmacies worldwide. Along with a keen focus on the value chain expertise and the significance of WHO/EU GMP certifications.

Research & Development (R&D)

The research and development phase is at the heart of every drug’s journey. Here, pharmaceutical companies invest significant resources into discovering new molecules or repurposing existing ones to address unmet medical needs. 

This phase involves many scientific disciplines, including medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology. Researchers meticulously screen thousands of compounds, seeking those with the desired therapeutic effects and minimal side effects. Consequently, once a promising compound is identified, it undergoes preclinical testing, where its safety and efficacy are evaluated in laboratory settings and animal models. This stage is crucial for determining whether the compound warrants further development.

Clinical Trials

Upon successful completion of preclinical studies, the drug candidate progresses to clinical trials – the cornerstone of drug development. These trials are divided into phases and involve rigorous testing in human subjects to assess safety, efficacy, and optimal dosage. These phases are: 

  1. Phase 1: Primarily focuses on small-scale testing for safety and dosage in healthy volunteers.
  2. Phase 2: Testing in a larger group to determine efficacy and side effects.
  3. Phase 3: Large-scale testing in diverse populations to confirm efficacy and monitor adverse reactions.
  4. Phase 4: Post-marketing surveillance for long-term safety and efficacy.

Regulatory Approval

Adherence to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) is central to the pharmaceutical value chain. GMPs are a set of quality assurance guidelines that ensure the consistent production of safe and effective pharmaceutical products. Recognizing the global nature of pharmaceutical manufacturing, organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Union (EU) have established GMP standards to harmonize quality standards worldwide.

Additionally, when a drug developer has gathered evidence demonstrating a drug’s safety and efficacy, they file a New Drug Application (NDA) with the FDA. This comprehensive document includes all relevant data from preclinical and clinical studies, proposed labeling, safety updates, and more. 

Upon receiving the NDA, the FDA review team meticulously examines its contents. If deemed complete, the team has 6 to 10 months to decide on approval. Each team member conducts a thorough review, supplemented by on-site inspections, to ensure data integrity. 

However, if the FDA determines the drug is safe and effective, labeling is refined to reflect its approved uses. Sometimes, additional studies or clarifications are requested before final approval.


After regulatory approval, pharmaceuticals enter the manufacturing phase. This phase is marked by meticulous attention, stringent quality control, and advanced technology to ensure safe and effective drug production.

Raw Material Sourcing and Quality Assurance

Manufacturing starts with getting raw materials. Manufacturers carefully choose suppliers by checking their facilities to ensure the raw materials are pure and potent, avoiding contamination that could harm the final product. They also check if suppliers follow Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) to maintain quality standards.

Formulation and Process Development

Pharmaceutical manufacturers optimize drug composition during formulation and process development for efficiency and patient compliance. Scientists assess solubility, stability, and administration routes. And, engineers design manufacturing processes for consistency and quality.

Manufacturing Operations and Quality Control

Pharmaceutical manufacturers move to large-scale production in advanced facilities, ensuring precise control. Each step is monitored for cleanliness and integrity, with quality control labs conducting comprehensive testing. This testing includes HPLC and mass spectrometry, to verify product quality and regulatory compliance.

Packaging and Distribution

After manufacturing, pharmaceutical products are packaged and labeled to safeguard against the environment and tampering while providing essential information. Manufacturers use various packaging formats tailored to dosage forms. These products are then distributed to wholesalers, distributors, and pharmacies, reaching patients.

Post-market Surveillance

Drug safety is a continuous process. Although clinical trials offer critical insights into a drug’s efficacy and safety, complete safety understanding isn’t immediate upon approval. A complete safety profile is only formed over time in the market. The FDA monitors drugs post-approval, updating information and issuing cautions or other measures if needed. 

It includes changes via supplemental applications, new uses via INDs, and routine inspections of manufacturing facilities. The FDA also regulates drug advertising to ensure accuracy and prohibits unapproved uses. Moreover, programs like MedWatch and MedSun facilitate reporting problems and enhance post-market safety monitoring.

Collaboration Across the Value Chain: A Network of Expertise

The journey of a drug from R&D to the pharmacy shelf requires expertise at every stage of the value chain. Pharmaceutical companies collaborate with a diverse network of stakeholders, including scientists, clinicians, regulatory experts, and manufacturing professionals, to navigate the complexities of drug development and commercialization.

Research and development teams leverage their scientific power to identify promising drug candidates and optimize their properties for clinical use. Clinical researchers conduct trials with precision and adherence to ethical standards, generating robust data for regulatory submission. Regulatory affairs specialists liaise with regulatory agencies to ensure compliance with evolving guidelines and expedite the approval process.

In manufacturing facilities, engineers and technicians employ cutting-edge technologies to streamline production processes and maintain the highest standards of quality. 

From Research to Market: A Journey of Expertise

The journey of a drug from conception to pharmacy shelves is a testament to scientific collaboration and regulatory diligence. From meticulous research and clinical trials to stringent manufacturing and post-market surveillance, each stage relies on a network of expertise. 

Interdisciplinary collaboration and strict adherence to WHO/EU GMP standards guarantee safe, effective medications reach global patients. From research laboratories to manufacturing plants, each contributor plays a vital role in advancing the drug along its journey, culminating in its availability to patients in need.


Green Chemistry: A Catalyst for Transformation in Pharma Manufacturing

Green chemistry, also known as sustainable chemistry, has emerged as a hope for industries striving to minimize their environmental footprint while maximizing efficiency and innovation. Despite pharmaceutical companies’ significant economic contribution, their manufacturing processes contribute to carbon emissions. Pharmaceutical factories typically use dangerous chemicals and produce a lot of waste, but green chemistry can bring significant changes for a better environment. This article delves into how adopting green chemistry practices is necessary to revolutionize the future of pharmaceutical manufacturing.

Understanding Green Chemistry

Before exploring the implications of green chemistry for the pharmaceutical industry, it’s crucial to understand its basics. At its core, green chemistry aims to create chemical products and processes that reduce the use of hazardous substances.

Its principles include minimizing environmental impact and fostering innovation, efficiency, and safety in various industries. In pharmaceutical manufacturing, where complex chemical synthesis and rigorous quality standards are the norm, understanding green chemistry has become pivotal in a new era of sustainability and responsibility.

Consequently, green chemistry revolves around twelve guiding principles established by chemists Paul Anastas and John Warner. These principles encompass the design, synthesis, and utilization of chemical products. Also, these processes minimize environmental hazards and maximize efficiency. Some fundamental tenets included in green chemistry are waste prevention, using renewable feedstocks, energy efficiency, and designing safer chemicals and processes.

Reducing Environmental Impact

The pharmaceutical industry faces the challenge of minimizing its environmental footprint. Traditional processes use solvents, reagents, and procedures harmful to ecosystems and human health. Whereas, green chemistry provides innovative solutions without compromising product integrity. Some of these innovative solutions are: 

  1. Minimizing Waste Generation: Adopting continuous flow technologies and processes reduces waste volume, enhancing efficiency and mitigating pollution. 
  2. Embracing Renewable Feedstocks: Utilizing renewable biomass-derived feedstocks like plant oils and sugars minimizes reliance on finite fossil resources and lowers greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, it promotes sustainability in pharmaceutical manufacturing.
  3. Optimizing Energy Efficiency: By reducing heat and electricity consumption, maximizing process integration, and leveraging renewable energy sources, pharmaceutical companies can save money and help the environment. Also, it makes their processes work together better, and using renewable energy sources.

Enhancing Safety and Compliance

What comes next in this is enhancing safety and compliance. Ensuring safety and compliance is paramount in pharmaceutical manufacturing. Green chemistry aligns with regulatory efforts to improve safety standards and promote sustainable practices within the pharmaceutical industry and they are: 

  1. Minimizing Exposure to Hazardous Substances: Green chemistry aims to replace toxic substances with safer alternatives, reducing workplace risks and fostering responsible chemical management.
  2. Meeting Regulatory Requirements: Adopting green chemistry ensures compliance with regulations like REACH and TSCA, demonstrating a commitment to sustainability and responsible stewardship.
  3. Embracing Sustainable Development Goals: Green chemistry aligns with SDGs, integrating environmental, social, and economic considerations to combat climate change and promote equitable healthcare.

Optimizing Efficiency and Cost-effectiveness

In pharmaceutical manufacturing, efficiency and cost-effectiveness are crucial for companies aiming to stay competitive while meeting quality and affordability demands. It can be achieved by embracing green chemistry principles, as many green technologies offer cost savings and process optimization opportunities. Several of them are: 

  1. Streamlining Manufacturing Processes: Green chemistry advocates for simpler, more streamlined processes in pharmaceutical manufacturing. It aims to optimize reaction conditions and employs innovative techniques such as continuous flow chemistry. These approaches lead to improved productivity and cost-effectiveness.
  2. Continuous Flow Chemistry: Continuous flow chemistry enables precise reaction control, reducing solvent usage and enhancing product quality and purity. It facilitates scale-up and agility in meeting market demands.
  3. Reducing Raw Material Waste: Green chemistry minimizes waste by promoting atom-efficient reactions and renewable feedstocks. Metrics like atom economy and E-factor help assess efficiency, leading to less waste and lower environmental impact.
  4. Enhancing Resource Efficiency: Efficient resource use, including energy and water, is central to green chemistry. Technologies like microwave synthesis reduce energy consumption, while bio-based materials lessen reliance on finite resources, mitigating environmental impact.

Innovating Drug Discovery and Development

Green chemistry is not limited to manufacturing; it’s also used in drug discovery and development processes. Traditionally, drug designs prioritize efficacy and potency without considering how they affect the environment. However, if we include environmental concerns when designing drugs, researchers can develop effective and environmentally friendly drugs. A few of them are: 

  1. Designing Eco-Friendly Molecules: In green drug discovery, designing molecules considers therapeutic effectiveness and environmental impact. It involves renewable feedstocks, safer solvents, and efficient synthetic routes guided by ecological profiles.
  2. Biocatalysis and Enzyme Engineering: Enzymes catalyze reactions with high precision and biodegradability, enhancing sustainability. Tailored enzymes enable efficient synthesis of complex molecules, reducing environmental impact in drug discovery.
  3. Green Synthesis Routes: Novel synthesis routes in green drug discovery minimize ecological impact and maximize efficiency. Continuous flow technologies control reactions, reducing waste and resource use for scalable, streamlined processes.
  4. Collaborative Initiatives and Knowledge Sharing: Green chemistry’s full potential in drug discovery requires collaboration. Partnerships and platforms facilitate idea exchange, accelerating innovation for the widespread adoption of sustainable pharmaceutical practices.

Challenges and Roadblocks

Green chemistry promises transformative economic and environmental benefits, reshaping the industry towards sustainability and environmental stewardship. However, the widespread adoption of green chemistry in pharmaceutical manufacturing is not without challenges.

One major obstacle is the inertia of established practices and infrastructure, making it difficult for companies to transition to greener alternatives. Additionally, there may be technical hurdles and regulatory barriers to overcome, particularly when validating new processes and ensuring product quality and consistency.

These challenges require diverse solutions, including:

  • Basic training in process excellence and renewable energy use,
  • Provide financial incentives or awards for companies embracing greener alternatives,
  • Allocate funding for research and development focused on overcoming technical challenges,
  • Work with regulatory agencies to develop clear guidelines for green chemistry practices.


In a nutshell, green chemistry offers a promising pathway towards transforming pharmaceutical manufacturing into a more sustainable and environmentally responsible industry. 

By prioritizing renewable feedstocks, minimizing waste generation, and enhancing safety and compliance, companies can reduce their environmental footprint and improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness. 

Despite challenges such as entrenched practices and regulatory barriers, collaborative efforts and innovative solutions can pave the way for the widespread adoption of green chemistry principles, ushering in a greener future for pharmaceutical manufacturing.

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Understanding APIs, Intermediates, and Finished Dosage Forms: A Guide for Pharma Professionals


In the intricate landscape of pharmaceutical development and manufacturing, a fundamental understanding of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs), intermediates, and finished dosage forms is paramount for professionals in the field.

Each stage is crucial in ensuring efficacy, safety, and regulatory compliance, from the inception of a drug’s synthesis to its final formulation.

This guide aims to provide pharmaceutical professionals with a comprehensive overview of APIs, intermediates, and finished dosage forms, delving into their intricacies, and regulatory considerations within the pharmaceutical industry.

Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs)

APIs constitute the central ingredient of any drug formulation, providing pharmacological activity or other direct effects in disease treatment, prevention, or diagnosis. They are manufactured through chemical synthesis, fermentation, recombinant DNA technology, or isolation from natural sources.

Processes of API Manufacture

API Process Development and Production involves several processing stages, such as reaction, crystallisation, separation, purification, filter cake washing, solvent swapping, and solvent exchange.

API Process Development Stage: Following drug discovery and early formulation, scientists determine how to convert the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) into an appropriate dose form for pilot production. Methods devised during this stage are later scaled up for commercial manufacturing pending successful clinical studies.

Selection of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Machinery: The choice of machinery for blending, extrusion, drying, milling, and micronization is critical. This selection significantly influences the final drug product’s physical characteristics and quality features.

Powder Processing and Particle Size Distribution (PSD): Powder processing involves milling, which reduces particle size for optimal processability, bioavailability, reactivity, and safety. Achieving the suitable particle size distribution (PSD) ensures drug efficacy and delivery to targeted body sites.

API Manufacturers

API production is a complex process involving chemical synthesis or biochemical methods. According to the FDA, Indian and Chinese companies dominate the API manufacturing sector. Pharmaceutical companies usually adhere to their country’s safety standards when manufacturing the final product.

Regulatory Compliance and Safety

The safety and efficacy of drug products hinge on the quality of their active ingredients, ensured through optimised processes.

Poor API process development and production, along with contaminated active ingredients, are linked to adverse health effects, including fatalities. Thus, regulatory procedures for approving active ingredients are being strengthened globally.

This regulation bolsters the pharmaceutical supply chain, enhancing medication quality and safety. APIs undergo independent pre-qualification processes, ensuring adherence to WHO Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and streamlining FPP pre-qualification.

API Intermediates

Pharmaceutical intermediates are chemical compounds synthesised and used to produce active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). They are formed at various stages in API synthesis and facilitate API synthesis by serving as building blocks or precursor molecules. They undergo chemical modifications to create the desired API.

Role of Intermediates in API Synthesis

Intermediates play a vital role in API synthesis by enabling controlled modifications for desired chemical properties. They represent various stages in the synthesis pathway toward the API, contributing significantly to the efficiency, scalability, and quality of the synthesis process. Well-designed intermediates can simplify complex routes, enhance yield, and reduce costs.

For example, a common intermediate in API synthesis is [benzene], which can be modified to produce a wide range of APIs. This versatility is one of the reasons why intermediates are so important in API synthesis.

Examples of Pharmaceutical Intermediates

  • Key Intermediates: Central to API synthesis, these intermediates undergo multiple transformations to form the desired API structure.
  • Protecting Group Intermediates: Involving temporary modifications of functional groups in the API molecule, protecting groups prevents undesired reactions.
  • Salt Formation Intermediates: APIs are sometimes produced as salts to enhance stability and solubility.
  • Chiral Intermediates: Introduce handedness into APIs, enabling the production of specific forms.

Regulatory Consideration:

Pharmaceutical intermediates are subject to GMP guidelines for quality control, compelling manufacturers to establish appropriate systems and processes. To ensure safety and quality, they must identify and control synthesis-related impurities as regulatory authorities require.

Process validation is necessary to maintain consistent quality in manufacturing, with manufacturers obliged to demonstrate process capability to meet specified standards. Additionally, comprehensive documentation is vital for traceability and regulatory assessment, ensuring integrity and compliance throughout the pharmaceutical intermediate manufacturing process.

Finished Dosage Forms (FDFs) 

A finished dosage form (FDF) represents the consumable, finalised drug product. It encompasses tablets, pills, liquid solutions, and other forms of FDFs. All FDFs contain an API along with other inactive components.

Different types of FDF

There are various types of finished dosage forms, each with unique properties and applications:

  1. Tablets: Tablets are solid dosage forms containing API and excipients. They come in multiple shapes, sizes, and colours, and can be designed for immediate release, extended release, or enteric coating.
  2. Capsules: Capsules are solid dosage forms encapsulating API and excipients in gelatin shells. They come in two main varieties: hard capsules (powder, granules, or pellets) and soft capsules (liquid or semi-solid fill).
  3. Liquids: Liquid dosage includes solutions, suspensions, and syrups. These are commonly used for paediatric and geriatric patients and individuals who have difficulty swallowing solid dosage forms.
  4. Ointments: Ointments are semi-solid dosage forms often used for topical application. They are typically a combination of an API and a base and are used for dermatological, respiratory, and ophthalmic purposes.
  5. Inhalants: Inhalants are intended to be inhaled into the lungs. They can be metered-dose inhalers, dry powder inhalers, or nebulized solutions and are often used for respiratory conditions such as asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

Regulatory Oversight

The FDA mandates manufacturers to demonstrate the efficacy of medications through laboratory settings and clinical trials involving actual patients. Stricter criteria and inspections have been implemented to regulate medications produced outside the home countries of pharmaceutical corporations.


Understanding APIs, intermediates, and finished dosage forms is pivotal for pharmaceutical professionals. The production of APIs encompasses rigorous processes, impacting the efficacy and safety of drug products from development to manufacturing.

Regulatory compliance ensures quality and safety, with intermediates playing a vital role in API synthesis. Diverse finished dosage forms cater to various patient needs. They are regulated to ensure efficacy and safety. Strengthening regulatory oversight is crucial for maintaining medication quality and safety and safeguarding public health globally.

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Innovations in Nephrology Care: Exploring the Latest Treatment Options


Nephrology emerged as the leading internal medicine subspecialty post-WWI. Kidneys are vital for bodily function, filter waste, regulate fluids and minerals, control blood pressure, and produce urine and erythropoietin.

Moreover, individuals with kidney disease experience impairment in kidney function, often stemming from conditions such as hypertension and diabetes. 

The National Kidney Foundation reports that kidney disease affects roughly 37 million adults, while an additional 80 million are at risk. Additionally, racial minorities have a higher incidence of kidney disease, with African Americans being approximately four times as susceptible.

In this article, let’s learn more about the kidney, kidney diseases, and worldwide research. 

What is Nephrology

Nephrology is a vital medical branch specializing in the comprehensive study, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney-related diseases. This involves a multifaceted approach, employing clinical, laboratory, imaging, and histopathologic techniques to assess kidney function and structure.

On the other hand, Nephrologists are dedicated to preserving kidney health through tailored interventions, including dietary adjustments, medication, and kidney replacement therapy. They adeptly manage various complications such as hypertension, fluid retention, and electrolyte imbalances, ensuring holistic care for their patients. 

Moreover, Nephrologists play a crucial role in addressing chronic conditions like diabetes and hypertension, which significantly impact kidney function, alongside managing acute renal failure cases. Collaborating seamlessly with transplant teams, they extend their expertise to oversee the care of kidney transplant recipients, ultimately striving to enhance patient quality of life and prevent complications.

Areas of Focus in Nephrology

Nephrologists may focus on diagnosing and treating various kidney disorders, catering to specific patient groups, or conducting specialised procedures. Specialised areas within nephrology encompass:

  1. Critical care nephrology
  2. Diabetic kidney disease management
  3. Dialysis oversight
  4. Geriatric nephrology (for age 65+)
  5. Interventional nephrology (including dialysis access and arteriovenous fistula surgery)
  6. Renal oncology (kidney cancer)
  7. Kidney stones treatment
  8. Kidney transplant care
  9. Paediatric nephrology (infants to adolescents)

Latest Treatment Options in Nephrology Care

Research and innovative developments shape treatment paradigms for kidney-related conditions in nephrology care. Some of these innovations are:

Kidney Fibrosis Treatment:

Researchers found increased histone lysine crotonylation (Kcr) in fibrotic kidneys, driven by the ACSS2 enzyme. Histone lysine crotonylation (Kcr) is a new acylation modification discovered in 2011 having important biological significance for gene expression, cell development, and disease treatment. 

TGF-β for Improved CKD Treatment:

In Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), TGF-β, a transforming growth factor affects kidney cell mitochondria, worsening the disease. However, in diseased conditions, TGF-β loses its anti-proliferative response and becomes an oncogenic factor. 

Moreover, recent research shows blocking TGF-β in mice’s proximal tubules increases mitochondrial damage and inflammation. Similar issues were found in CKD patients’ kidney samples. Hence, this new insight may lead to new CKD treatment approaches targeting TGF-β pathways.

Denosumab in Osteoporosis Patients with Kidney Disease

In a recent innovation, Denosumab, commonly used for osteoporosis in advanced kidney disease patients, raises concerns about severe hypocalcemia. A study of 2804 older females on dialysis reveals a higher risk compared to oral bisphosphonates. Prolia now carries a boxed warning, emphasising intensified monitoring during treatment.

Genetic Solution to Mitigate CKD

New research reveals that certain APOL1 gene variations increase chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk in people of West African descent. However, another mutation, p.N264k, counters this risk. In vitro studies show that p.N264k reduces the harmful effects of high-risk APOL1 variations. This suggests potential drug targets for CKD prevention.

Enhanced Advance Care Planning for Dialysis Patients

A study in 42 dialysis clinics with 430 patients and their decision-makers showed improved patient-surrogate communication through 45-60 minute discussions led by clinic healthcare workers. This approach reduces end-of-life decisional conflicts and increases adherence to care goals among dialysis patients, enhancing their overall care experience.

Medicinal Options in Nephrology Care

Medicinal Options in Nephrology Care delves into the diverse pharmacological interventions available for managing kidney-related conditions.


Renagold Tablet is frequently prescribed as a nutritional supplement for individuals suffering from chronic kidney failure and uremia. Its primary function is to inhibit the elevation of urea levels in the bloodstream from consuming non-essential amino acids among kidney failure patients.

Uriglob/Uriglob D

Uriglob Tablet effectively relaxes muscles in the bladder and prostate to alleviate symptoms associated with an enlarged prostate. This relaxation enables easier urination, providing rapid relief from urinary difficulties.

Trientine HCL Capsules

Trientine Hydrochloride is prescribed for Wilson’s disease, functioning as a copper-chelating agent. Its mechanism involves binding surplus copper in the body’s tissues and facilitating its elimination through the kidneys in the urine.


Trientine Hydrochloride reduces high blood phosphorus levels in dialysis patients. Selaglob Tablets stop phosphate absorption in the intestine, reducing blood phosphate levels.


Calcium Polystyrene Sulfonate reduces high blood potassium levels, particularly in kidney conditions such as anuria, severe oliguria, and chronic kidney disease. It’s also utilised to lower potassium levels in patients undergoing regular dialysis.


Febuglob Tablet treats gout by lowering uric acid levels. It’s for patients unresponsive to allopurinol. Also used for hyperuricemia in adults with hematologic malignancies at medium to high TLS risk during chemotherapy.


Deferglob Tablet is prescribed for managing chronic iron overload resulting from recurrent blood transfusions. Its function involves eliminating surplus iron from the body and lowering the likelihood of organ damage induced by iron accumulation.


Innovations in nephrology care are revolutionising treatment approaches for kidney-related conditions, addressing diverse challenges with promising solutions.

The landscape of nephrology is evolving, from groundbreaking genetic insights offering potential preventive strategies for chronic kidney disease to enhanced communication practices improving end-of-life care for dialysis patients. Furthermore, advancements in medicinal options provide tailored interventions, such as Renagold for nutritional support and Trientine HCL for Wilson’s disease.

These developments underscore nephrology’s commitment to optimising patient outcomes and enhancing the quality of life, ushering in a new era of personalised and effective kidney care.

 Globela Pharma offers high quality and affordable nephrology solutions across 50+ countries. 

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Beyond the Virus- The Connection Between CVD and COVID-19 Complications


The world witnessed a catastrophe in the form of the COVID-19 pandemic. As per statistical data, more than 702 million active Covid positive cases are present worldwide. Moreover, the world lost around 7 million to the deadly virus. The COVID-19 is characterised by severe respiratory distress syndrome caused by novel SARS-CoV-2. 

At the beginning of COVID-19, evidence of the acute symptoms of the pandemic was pretty straightforward. However, several studies are being carried out to analyse the long-term sequelae of COVID-19. Reports of the trials suggest a strong link between COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Diseases.

According to the World Health Organization, Cardiovascular Diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Heart attack and stroke are significant CVDs that have high mortality prevalence. The data put forward by a report, COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Diseases, published in 2020, stated a high occurrence of CVDs in COVID-19-positive patients, with more than 7% of patients experiencing myocardial injury due to the virus. 

Therefore, the identification of risk factors and prevention of cardiovascular diseases in patients with a COVID-19 history is a challenge for the medical fraternity. Risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases are well known, such as lifestyle and genetics. However, the role of these two factors in precipitating CVDs in patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 is still unknown.

COVID-19 and CVDs

One of the long-term consequences of the pandemic manifested in the form of an increased global cardiovascular burden. Recent statistical data presents a rise in mortality and morbidity related to Cardiovascular diseases owing to the direct and indirect effects of COVID-19.

Moreover, research has found an interlink between genetic factors and poor lifestyle with cardiovascular disorders in COVID-19 patients. 

The genetic association is determined using the Polygenic Risk Score. High values show a high risk of developing coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism in people with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Similarly, poor living habits such as smoking habit, increased alcohol consumption, and sedentary living put individuals at a higher risk for developing cardiac complications. 

Although the exact pathophysiology behind the risk of CVD in COVID-19 patients is not yet understood, researchers have attempted to explain a couple of mechanisms. Some of them are:

Direct cardiotoxicity- The SARS-CoV-2 virus directly infects the cardiac cells leading to myocarditis. 

Post-disease hyper-inflammation- Post-COVID-19 cases have shown uncontrolled release of cytokines leading to plaque formation and vascular inflammation. It ultimately precipitates Myocardial Infarction, cardiomyopathy and Heart Failure.

Systemic manifestations- COVID-19 also causes systemic complications such as Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation(DIC), sepsis etc which result in cardiovascular diseases.

Genetics and Lifestyle- Potent Risk Factors for CVD

Genetics and lifestyle influence the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. A family history of CVD raises the chances of acquiring the disease. The proportion of risk will also be influenced by the age of the affected relative. CVDs such as congenital diseases, high cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure can be inherited. Alteration even in the single gene code can lead to heritable cardiac disorders.

Similarly, lifestyle also influences the prevalence of CVD in an individual. Poor diet, high alcohol consumption, a history of smoking, and less physical activity are culprits of cardiac diseases.

But, how do these two potential risk factors augment the chances of CVDs in people who have a history of COVID-19?

What does Research Show?

A study was conducted between March 2020 and September 2021 on 25,335 COVID-19-positive patients to evaluate the role of genes and lifestyle. The study aimed to correlate the link between PRS(Polygenic Risk Score), lifestyle factors and cardiovascular disorders in selected patients within 90 days after diagnosis of COVID-19. 

A polygenic Risk Score is an accumulation of genetic risk factors for a particular trait. It is an authentic tool to predict precision medicine and cardiovascular disease occurrence rates. In the study, the PRS was determined for cardiac diseases such as venous thromboembolism, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation and ischemic strokes. Moreover, the prospective cohort research also used a lifestyle index comprising 9 variables to determine its role in the precipitation of cardiovascular diseases.

The study used the Cox proportional hazard model to calculate the hazard ratio and confidence interval for studying the link between genes and CVD. In contrast, the multivariable Cox regression model was applied to determine the lifestyle factors.

The result of the study confirmed a linear association between gene mutations and a higher incidence of cardiovascular disorders post-COVID-19 infection. The participants with the top 20 per cent Polygenic Risk Score have a high risk of developing atrial fibrillation(3-fold increase), coronary artery disease(3.5-fold increase) and venous thromboembolism (2-fold rise). However, no apparent association is observed between ischemic strokes and genetic factors. Another interesting finding is the positive existence of risk factors even in fully vaccinated individuals.

A positive correlation exists between a healthy lifestyle and a lower incidence of CVDs in COVID-19 patients. It is also noteworthy that COVID-positive cases with unhealthy lifestyles, when switched to healthy living diminished their risk of developing CVDs. Cardiac complications such as CAD and AF also demonstrate an additive rise in patients with high scores of PRS and an unhealthy lifestyle.

The Conclusion

Although the fatal wave of the pandemic is over. The world lost more than a million lives. But, the threat persists. The long-term consequences of COVID-19 in patients with a positive history are still a medical mystery. Several research groups and pharmaceutical companies like Globela Pharma are trying to do evidence-based studies to deal with chronic complications.

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Cephalosporins Today: Current Applications and Impact on Modern Medicine


Welcome to a comprehensive exploration of Cephalosporins, a pivotal group of antibiotics derived from Cephalosporium. In this blog, we’ll delve into their mechanism of action, examine the different generations, explore their diverse applications, and peer into the future with the emergence of the fifth generation. Join us on this journey through time and innovation in the realm of antibiotic therapy.

Cephalosporins- The Future of Antibiotics

Cephalosporins are a group of semisynthetic antibiotics derived from Cephalosporin-C, obtained from the fungus Cephalosporium. These are the largest group of Beta-Lactam antibiotics, i.e., they interfere with bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cephalosporins are broad-spectrum antibiotics effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, its use is widespread in both medical and dental conditions. 

There are five generations of cephalosporins divided based on chronological sequence of development as well as antibacterial spectrum and potency. 

The generation of cephalosporin determines the indications, contraindications, adverse effects, and route of administration, along with other vital factors. 

Mechanism of Action-

The beta-lactam drugs inhibit cell wall formation by acting against the transpeptidase. This disrupts the cross-linking that maintains the close-knit structure of the cell wall.  The transpeptidase and related proteins constitute the penicillin-binding proteins(PBPs) located in the bacterial cell membrane. Each microorganism has multiple PBPs that have an affinity towards different beta-lactam antibiotics. Therefore, when a bacteria replicates in the presence of a beta-lactam antibiotic, cell wall-deficient organisms are produced. 

Moreover, owing to the hyperosmotic interiors of the bacteria, the cell wall deficient form swells and bursts, thus causing the lysis of the organism. This is how a beta-lactam antibiotic such as cephalosporins exerts bactericidal action. Beta-lactam antibiotics are most lethal during the phase of rapid cell wall synthesis. And because the peptidoglycan cell walls are unique to bacterial species, these antibiotics are practically non-toxic to humans. Also, blood, pus, and tissue fluids do not interfere with the antibacterial action of beta-lactam antibiotics. 

Generations of Cephalosporins-

Based on their activity and potency against the type of bacteria, traditionally there are four generations of cephalosporins-

First Generation- These were developed in the 1960s and have high potency against gram-positive bacteria such as staphylococci and streptococci. However, their action against gram-negative groups is considerably low. Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella, and E. coli are a few gram-negative species responsive to first-generation cephalosporins.

The first-generation cephalosporins include Cefazolin, Cephalexin, Cephradine, and Cefadroxil.

Second Generation- Developed after the first generation of cephalosporins, this group of drugs works against gram-negative bacteria. Some second-generation compositions are also effective against anaerobes(cephamycin sub-group).

Second-generation cephalosporins include cefuroxime, which is highly active against H. influenza. Other drugs in this group are Cefuroxime axetil, cefaclor, etc.

Third Generation- First introduced in the 1980s, the third generation cephalosporins have high augmented activity against gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae. Some of the formulations also inhibit Pseudomonas activity. All the third-generation cephalosporin drugs are resistant to the beta-lactamase enzyme produced by gram-negative bacteria. However, they are less potent against gram-positive cocci and anaerobes. Cefotaxime is the prototype of this group. Other drugs include Ceftizoxime, Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime, Cefixime, etc.

Fourth Generation- This generation includes Cefepime, developed in the 1990s. It has a similar activity spectrum as the third-generation drugs. However, its potency is more with high resistance to beta-lactamases. Cefepime is also active against Ps. aeruginosa and Staph. Aureus. Another fourth-generation cephalosporin is Cefpirome. Both of these drugs are highly recommended for hospital-acquired infections and other serious health issues.

Applications of Cephalosporins-

Cephalosporins are extensively used in medical practice. The group of beta-lactam antibiotics have found a wide range of applications.

  • As a substitute for the Penicillin group of antibiotics in allergic patients. The first generation Cephalosporins are the preferred choice.
  • For Respiratory, urinary and soft tissue infections caused by gram-negative organisms, especially Klebsiella, Proteus, Enterobacter, and Serratia.
  • Against Penicillinase-producing staphylococcal infections.
  • In cases of septicemia caused by gram-negative organisms. A combination of aminoglycoside and cephalosporin is a good combination in such cases.
  • Cefazolin is administered for most of the surgical prophylaxis.
  • Ceftriaxone is the first choice of drug(as a single-dose therapy) for gonorrhoea caused by penicillinase-producing organisms. 
  • Cefuroxime and cefotaxime are also preferred for single-dose therapy in cases of chancroid.
  • Ceftriaxone and cefoperazone are the fastest-acting drugs in typhoid.
  • Cefuroxime, cefaclor or any of the third-generation compounds is a choice of drug for mixed aerobic-anaerobic infections in cancer patients.
  • Third-generation cephalosporins are given in colorectal surgery and obstetric complications.
  • Ceftazidime or other third-generation cephalosporins are administered as a prophylactic agent or treatment modality in cases of infections in neutropenic patients.
  • These are a preferred group of drugs given against hospital-acquired infections that are resistant to common antibiotics.
  • Orally active 1st and 2nd generation cephalosporins are primarily prescribed for orodental infections.

Adverse Effects of Cephalosporins

Cephalosporins are a well-tolerated group of drugs. However, they are more toxic than penicillin. Some of the adverse effects related to cephalosporins are-

  • Pain after intramuscular cephalosporin administration is a common occurrence. 
  • Thrombophlebitis on intravenous injections occurs in many cases.
  • Oral administration of cephradine can lead to diarrhea. Parenteral administration of cefoperazone is significantly excreted in bile.
  • Hypersensitivity reactions similar to penicillin. However, the incidence rate is lower. Rashes are a common manifestation. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, and asthma can also occur.
  • Few cephalosporins such as Cephalothin exhibit low-grade nephrotoxicity. Pre-existing renal conditions usually accentuate the condition.
  • Bleeding can occur on administration of cephalosporins like cefoperazone and ceftriaxone.
  • The rare occurrence of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia is also noticed with ceftazidime and some other cephalosporins.
  • Cefoperazone also creates a disulfiram reaction with alcohol.

Contraindications of Cephalosporins-

Although well-tolerated, cephalosporins are contraindicated in the following few conditions-

  • Ceftriaxone is contraindicated in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia.
  • In patients who are allergic to cephalosporins.
  • In individuals who have a history of anaphylaxis to penicillin or other beta-lactam group of drugs.

What is new? The Fifth Generation Cephalosporins

The research work with cephalosporins has seen a dramatic rise in the last decade. Novel cephalosporins such as ceftobiprole, ceftolozane, ceftazidime etc offer excellent in vitro results in terms of microbiological susceptibility. These drugs are considered to be the fifth-generation cephalosporins. These compounds have transport mechanisms to enter multi-drug-resistant bacteria. These drugs work via a sparing approach in different antimicrobial classes such as carbapenems, aminoglycosides etc.

However, more research is required to evaluate their clinical efficacy. Pharma groups like Globela Pharma can contribute to developing and testing the fifth class of cephalosporins which will be a game changer.


As we conclude this journey through the past, present, and future of Cephalosporins, the potential for groundbreaking advancements in antibiotic therapy becomes evident. With ongoing research and the emergence of the fifth generation, the horizon is broadening for medical professionals and pharmaceutical companies alike. Stay tuned for the latest updates in the dynamic world of antibiotic innovation!

Team of industrial scientists, engineers, developers innovating new vaccine, doctor pointing on tablet explaining virus evolution to coworker. Chemist researching diagnosis in equipped laboratory.

Digitalization In Pharma Research


The Pharmaceutical industry is the backbone of the healthcare system. To always level up themselves and stay ahead of the competition, pharmaceutical companies expand their work by adapting new technologies. 

In this era, with of help of incredible and fast-developing advancements in technology and the huge amount of data harnessing, great tools and technologies can easily improve the entire drug discovery and development journey.

Ahead in this article, we will explore the need for digitalization in the pharmaceutical industry R&D and the potential benefits it holds.

Role of Digitalization in Pharmaceutical Companies’ R&D (Research and Development)

The world we are living in is not bounded with any limitations so are pharma companies. Constantly changing demands of consumers and their hustle lives make digitalization a mandatory step in pharmaceutical companies but also serves as a less time-consuming platform to keep an eye on their health. 

Apart from this pharmaceutical companies also need Digitalization in the R&D department for the following:

Accelerating Drug Discovery

If we consider the traditional process of drug discovery it is often expensive and time-consuming. Digitalization can help to revolutionize the process by integrating all the data-related methodologies such as artificial intelligence or AI and machine learning. These new technologies enable researchers to easily access massive data sets and also to identify patterns and make predictions. 

Digital tools can easily analyse a huge number of chemical compounds and hence can easily reduce the time for screening potential drug candidates. This will indeed help in the fast identification of potential targets and will also increase the efficiency of the drug discovery process.

Enhancing Clinical Trials

Clinical trials are a crucial and mandatory part of drug authentication. They are critical for analysing the safety and efficacy of a drug candidate. In clinical trials, digitalization can also help to improve the patient’s recruitment data collection and monitoring throughout the whole clinical trial process.

Furthermore, the digital platforms of pharmaceutical companies can reach a broader end of the population of potential participants. This will also help to ensure a more diverse and representative patient population. 

Moreover, digital tools facilitate remote monitoring of the patients ensuring real-time data collection and analysis. This eventually will not only enhance patients’ participation but also will improve the accuracy and efficiency of data collection for better decision-making.

Improving Data Integration and Collaboration

Pharmaceutical R&D holds huge amounts of data including clinical trials, electronic health records and many others as well. Implementing digitalization and cloud-based solutions can help companies to integrate huge data sets and can overcome the issues like data silos.

Data integration also helps researchers attain an exact view of patients’ histories and treatment verdicts. This eventually helps to make a strong and established decision to decide on a specific treatment and medications for the patients. 

Also, digitalization tools allow clinicians and researchers to work effortlessly across various locations enhancing their expertise, ideas and knowledge.

Optimizing Drug Manufacturing and Supply Chain

Digitalization also plays a crucial role in transforming drug manufacturing and supply chain processing. By using it, companies collect real-time data on health equipment manufacturing and supply chain logistics. This helps to keep a continuous eye on the early detection of issues which helps in reducing downtime and increasing overall productivity.

Also, the introduction of digitalization can create virtual replicas of manufacturing plants or supply chain processes. This creates a better opportunity for creating various scenarios for planning. At the same time, this will be a cost-effective solution for pharma companies. 

Ensuring Regulatory Compliance

The pharmaceutical industry works in a very complex and highly regulated environment. Digitalization can help to automate documentation track changes and provide an authentic and transparent audit trial making regulatory inspections simple and reducing chances of errors.

Moreover, real-time monitoring and access to data can enable pharmaceutical companies to quickly identify all the relevant concerns and actively address them. This helps the patients ensure their safety and also helps the company maintain their reputation. It also helps the company to gain the trust of regulatory bodies and stakeholders.

Enabling Personalized Medicine

Personalized medicine is something that aims at providing treatment to every individual as per the requirements of their bodies, gene makeup, lifestyle and other important factors. By promoting digitalization pharmaceutical companies can keep the data of the patients along with other crucial and confidential information safe. This will enable pharmaceutical companies to reach precision in medicines as per the needs of the patients.

Additionally, the newly introduced concept of AI (Artificial Intelligence) tools can also help in this scenario. These tools can easily analyse the huge amount of data of patients and genetic profiles and can plan a specific treatment as per the requirements. This will enhance targeted therapy development and will also enable healthcare providers to make informed decisions based on the personalized data of the patients.

Benefits of Digitalization in Pharma Companies

The digitalization in the field of pharmaceutical companies’ R&D shows numerous benefits as follows:

  • Easy collection of data in one place
  • Help increase efficacy and manufacturing using digital changes
  • Can get more work done in less time
  • Shows low dependency on manual labour
  • The progress or no progress is easily visible
  • Helps expand business
  • Personalized treatments and therapies to the consumers as per their needs


Digitalization is no longer an option but is the need of the hour for a step ahead in pharmaceutical companies’ R&D departments. By introducing digital tools, technologies and data-driven approaches pharmaceutical companies not only can unlock a treasure of accelerating drug discovery but also improve clinical trials. Also, it will help you optimize manufacturing processes that will ensure regulatory compliance and provide personalized medicines. 

The need for digitalization in the pharmaceutical industry is now a mandatory step to be taken to ensure the immense benefits and facilities these technologies can provide to consumers. The pharmaceutical companies that will embrace this transformative step will indeed gain a reputation in the market and also build a competitive advantage by delivering unpredictable innovations. 

The introduction of digitalization in pharmaceutical companies’ R&D will not only improve the present condition of medical health throughout the country but also will show proven results in improving global healthcare outcomes.

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Collaboration-A need of hour to Speed up Access to New Vaccines


The fatal wave of COVID-19 made everyone aware of the importance of vaccines to prevent and control tremendously dangerous and infectious diseases. The whole world during the COVID-19 pandemic needed an efficient vaccine to kill the virus and save them from a lethal contagious disease. Scientists and researchers globally were focused on creating an efficient and reliable vaccine to protect the world from such a dangerous virus. 

During the pandemic crisis, this situation not only demonstrated the importance of vaccines and medicines in our lives but also proved how important it is to have a well-organized and synchronised process for vaccine manufacturing.  To combat all the challenges that the world faced during the time of pandemic a new tool of “regulatory collaboration” came to light. 

In this article, we will learn the importance of global regulatory collaboration and how this global regulatory collaboration helps in achieving a single goal i.e., speed up the access to vaccines.

What does Global Regulatory Collaboration mean?

A global regulatory collaboration simply means the collaboration or working together by regulatory bodies from various countries. It works in different ways to discuss, develop, manage and achieve the same goal. 

The Global Regulatory Collaboration came out as an emerging tool to have more access to vaccines and medications. Also, it helps to manage its proper manufacturing as well as distribution across the globe. 

What is the importance of Global Regulatory Collaboration?

The traditional regulatory process for the validation and approval of vaccines involves a series of rigorous trials and preclinical examinations along with an assessment of manufacturing processes. 

Global regulatory collaboration also plays a vital role in ensuring the rapid development, approval and distribution of vaccines worldwide. 

The era of COVID-19 demanded the healthcare system’s urgency of efficient and useful vaccines along with acceleratory regulatory pathways without compromising on scientific rigour. 

Thus, the Global Regulatory collaboration helps in acknowledging the need for expeditious decision-making along with ensuring excellent standards and quality in vaccine development and efficient distribution. 

How does the Global Regulatory Collaboration aim to speed access to new vaccines?

There are various benefits of Global Regulatory Collaboration as it aims to speed the access to new vaccines.

Global Regulatory collaborations work while promoting the sharing of information, harmonizing standards and promoting mutual recognition of regulatory decisions it enables the availability of access to safe and efficient vaccines. 

So let’s understand it’s working as follows:

Enhancing Information Sharing and Cooperation:

A very crucial aspect of global regulatory collaboration is the exchange of information and cooperation among regulatory authorities. Collaboration enables regulatory agencies to share their data from every event. 

It starts from clinical trials to post-marketing surveillance along with no confidentiality, but total transparency. By enabling access to the expertise and resources of various collaborated regulatory bodies the companies can minimize the approval timelines and other efforts too. 

It also can help companies to facilitate the global availability of safe and quality vaccines throughout the globe. 

Harmonization of Standards:

Various countries have various wide range of rules. Yes, different countries have different and unique regulatory requirements and approval processes which eventually make the consumers suffer for their needs.

Additionally, these processes are time-consuming and require various recognitions. Thus, it takes very long for these vaccines to reach across borders. 

In this, Global regulatory collaboration attempts to harmonize standards and requirements among different agencies to hasten the approval process. 

By ensuring proper synchronisation and utilising recognition companies can prevent the duplication of efforts. Also, it aids the regulatory bodies to speed up access to vaccines without compromising their safety and efficacy.

Mutual Recognition of Regulatory Decisions:

Mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) are the key tools that play a major role in global regulatory collaboration. It allows regulatory bodies to accept the decision and verdict established by another authentic regulatory body. 

This process not only saves time by avoiding fake evaluations but also helps in enhancing trust and confidence in the safety and functioning of approved vaccines.

MRAs’ functioning is so effective and incredible that they make countries rely on the expertise of authentic regulatory agencies and also enable quick authorisation of vaccines within their jurisdictions.

International Consortia and Collaborative Platforms:

International consortia and collaborative platforms have established themselves as the leaders of global regulatory collaboration. Huge and reputed agencies like the World Health Organization (WHO), The International Coalition of Medicines Regulatory Authorities, and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations have also played a major part in cherishing cooperation among regulatory bodies. 

These platforms focus on sharing scientific information, harmonization standards and other relevant information required to help maintain a coordinated global development and distribution of vaccines throughout the globe. The international consortia and collaborative platforms also help by optimising resources and coordinating efforts to make vaccines. 

Impact on Access and Equity:

Global regulatory collaboration has profound implications for access and equity in vaccine distribution. Accelerating the regulatory process ensures the access of vaccines to developing countries as well, as that to the advanced ones. 

For instance, WHO’s very well-known COVAX and other Emergency Use Listing (EUL) had an equal distribution of the vaccines by regulatory collaborating bodies. They also encouraged the sharing of the doses with other countries in need. 

By developing and distributing vaccines across the world the regulatory collaboration not only bridged the gap in accessing vaccines to individuals but also saved thousands of lives reducing health disparities.


In a nutshell, global regulatory collaborations have proved themselves to be a pillar in saving lives by speeding up access to vaccines during times of crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic has reinforced the need for a synchronised and coordinated regulatory body to ensure the timely availability of safe and effective vaccines. 

As the world continues to battle with an ongoing pandemic and prepares itself for future global health crises, it is now a mandatory part to promote and accept global regulatory collaboration as a smart strategy to accelerate access to life-saving vaccines.

This same goes for the medicines as well. Collaboration is also a need in the manufacturing of medicine as well. In this, Globela Pharma with collaboration services provides rigid cooperation while maintaining the transparency in manufacturing of medicines.

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Building a Strong Foundation: The Core Elements of Successful Pharma Businesses


In the world of pharmaceuticals, finding success is not just about making a strong firm of effective drugs and treatments. Moreover, it involves building a strong foundation for long-term profitability and making a positive impact on patients’ lives. So let’s dive deeper into acknowledging the core elements of establishing a thriving pharma business and its significance.

What are the necessary core elements of establishing a Pharma Business?

Pharmaceutical companies face various challenges to gain a reputation and name in the market to establish themselves. Let’s know the core elements required for establishing a successful pharmaceutical business including:

Vision and Purpose:

Every successful pharmaceutical company requires a clear vision and purpose that guides its operations. A focused vision helps provide long-term goals and aspirations for the company. It helps business to define its objectives, stay focused and navigate through all challenges. 

When the employees know about the company’s motto, they become more engaged and motivated towards accomplishing that motto. Moreover, it attracts top talents, investors, and collaborators to be inspired by the company’s mission. 

For instance, Globela Pharma has been thriving in the pharmaceutical business since 2006 as they are rigidly clear in their vision to make highly researched, affordable and accessible healthcare products. Additionally, this strong vision and purpose help the company to establish its own identity setting it apart from the competition and creating a level of trust with stakeholders. 

Innovation and Research:

The ever-changing field of pharmaceutical companies constantly demands innovation and research. Innovation is one of the factors that helps to stay ahead in the pharmaceutical industry. Successful pharma businesses invest in their R&D department to discover better and more. 

Just like Globela Pharma, has been forefront of innovation for nearly seventy years. Also, we at Globela have a passion for innovation aligned with the industry’s gold standards to ensure high-quality products. 

Moreover, by embracing innovation, businesses can bring huge profits for the company elevate patients’ care and generate sustainability. 

Regulatory Compliance:

It is crucial to set strict regulations governing the pharmaceutical industry, complying with national and international standards. For every successful pharma business compliance to maintain a positive reputation is mandatory. 

Regulatory compliance includes rigorous quality control but also involves accurate documentation, transparent reporting, and adherence to legal requirements. Implementing robust compliance helps the business to mitigate risks, avoid legal issues, and build a reputation.

Quality Control and Manufacturing:

Quality control is the foremost check in the pharmaceutical industry. Successful businesses implement rigorous quality management systems throughout the manufacturing process to ensure their products meet the highest standards of safety, efficacy, and purity.

It is very crucial to maintain good manufacturing practices (GMP) and invest in state-of-the-art facilities. These investments ensure that manufacturing processes are standardized, efficient, and reproducible. 

Prioritizing quality helps pharmaceutical companies establish trust and dependability with healthcare professionals. The trust for a pharmaceutical company in the market ensures more sales and profits and also encourages the company to work better to maintain the same.

Moreover, maintaining high-quality manufacturing processes aids in ensuring meeting the requirements of the public, minimizing the risk of product recalls and reputational damage.

Market Access: 

While developing exceptional drugs, it is vital to make them accessible to the patients who require them. Market access to various healthcare departments like hospitals, clinics, distributors, and many others helps ensure a strong relationship between the users and the company. It helps to build a name among the consumers and gain market access.

Furthermore, successful pharma businesses understand regional market dynamics and customize their strategies accordingly. They conduct thorough market research to find exact customer needs and preferences. This information enables them to reach out to consumers and tailor their messaging and promotional activities effectively. 

Understanding the market helps companies to optimize pricing strategies, reimbursement models, and healthcare policies. These strategies ensure that medications are accessible to patients at affordable prices which eventually helps them to maximize market penetration and revenue generation.

Efficient Distribution:

Efficient distribution is the key to success when it comes to market access. All the renowned and successful pharmaceutical businesses maintain a strong partnership with distributors ensuring efficient delivery to healthcare providers, pharmacies, and eventually patients. 

Optimization of the distribution process reduces transportation costs, enhances the supply chain and promotes customer satisfaction. Consequently, companies like Globela Pharma with their efficient distribution are supplying their medicines in 42+ nations and building their business foundation day by day. 

Sales and Marketing Excellence:

In a highly competitive market, it is essential to drive product adoption and revenue growth to gain effective sales and marketing strategies. Successful pharma businesses invest in thorough market research to identify customer needs, behaviours, and preferences. 

This collection of knowledge allows them to develop targeted marketing campaigns which eventually help to resonate with a targeted audience. Acknowledgement of equipping the sales team with in-depth products is a crucial factor in achieving sales success. 

Also, the sales team must have appropriate knowledge of the drugs they are promoting, including their benefits, potential side effects, and competitive advantages. Thus, regular training programs are necessary to keep the sales team informed about medical advances and ensure that they can communicate the value and safety of drugs effectively.

Partnerships and Collaborations:

No pharma business can succeed by sitting inside a room. Collaboration is key to addressing complex healthcare challenges, fostering innovation, and expanding market reach. Successful companies actively participate in reaching academia, research institutions, healthcare providers, and other pharmaceutical companies.

Strategic collaborations enable businesses to combine diverse expertise, share resources, and work towards a common goal. Partnering with research institutions and academia facilitates access to cutting-edge research, enabling faster drug development and innovation. 

Collaborations with healthcare providers ensure the right directional clinical research, allowing companies to gather real-world evidence of their drugs’ efficacy and safety. 


Building a strong foundation for a successful pharma business is not an easy task, but surely can be achieved through regular efforts and a multifaceted approach. In order for pharmaceutical companies to grow and impact, they must have a clear vision, adhere to regulatory standards, focus on quality, have strategic market access, execute well on sales and marketing, and establish fruitful partnerships.

With the above-discussed core elements in place, pharmaceutical companies can shape the future of healthcare in an extremely new direction and improve the lives of millions.

Oncology Drug Manufacturing

From Lab to Patient: Prioritizing Safety and Quality in the Oncology Drug Manufacturing Process


Oncology is a term used for the study of cancer. Cancer is a disease characterized by the uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells that destroy body tissues. As per the latest studies, the number of cancer cases in the year 2022 was 14,61,427. The rising rate of cancer has been a matter of deep concern for a long time. This requires authentic medicines and therapies to cure it.

The field of oncology drug manufacturing plays a pivotal role in the fight against cancer. With the ever-increasing demand for effective and safe treatments, it is imperative to ensure the highest standards of safety and quality throughout the manufacturing process. This blog aims to shed light on the key aspects and measures that pharmaceutical companies and regulatory bodies must undertake to guarantee the safety and efficacy of oncology drugs.

Why is safety required to manufacture oncology drugs?

Well, the answer to this includes the prevention of the hazardous effects of manufactured oncology drugs. As these drugs exhibit the following 6 characteristics while manufacturing which makes it more dangerous to use these drugs without proper safety. Those 6 characteristics are as follows:

  • Carcinogenicity – Substances that cause tumour via., inhalation, ingestion or skin contact are known as carcinogens, and cause carcinogenicity.
  • Teratogenicity – Capacity of a drug to cause congenital anomalies due to harmful chemicals. 
  • Reproductive toxicity – It is a type of toxicity that occurs when a chemical shows adverse effects on the reproductive system. 
  • Organ toxicity – It takes place when a chemical shows ill effects on any of the organs of the body.
  • Geno toxicity – An adverse characteristic of a chemical or a substance to cause gene anomalies.

Drugs with the above characteristics can pose a potential threat to healthcare workers who are often exposed to these drugs while handling them in the course of their daily routine.

In 1979, a study was published about the mutagenic activity observed in the urine of patients who had undergone chemotherapy and also in nurses who administered chemotherapy to them. It was an evident study since occupational exposure risk was published.

The main routes for exposure to cytotoxic drugs take place via skin contact, inhalation, ingestion and sharp injuries. These routes make it more prone to exposure and harm to workers and staff working at that place.

Why is quality required to manufacture oncology drugs?

In a pharmaceutical company, quality assurance is the most basic and widely accepted concept. The basic properties of quality medicine include: 

  • The medicine should show the desired results and the purpose it is taken for.
  • To prevent a patient from accidentally consuming an incorrect or contaminated medicine.

Providing quality medicines not only helps users heal their condition sooner and better but also helps the company maximise its production and enhance its reputation. 

What are the steps that can be implemented to promote quality and safety in oncology drug manufacturing?

The following are some of the solutions that can help achieve safe and quality oncology drugs:

Stringent regulatory framework 

To ensure safety and quality in oncology drug manufacturing, a robust regulatory framework is essential. Regulatory authorities, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in Europe, meticulously evaluate and approve drugs before they enter the market. They assess the manufacturing processes, clinical trial data, and safety profiles of drugs, ensuring they meet predetermined standards.

Practising proper manufacturing practices 

Adhering to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) is crucial in oncology drug manufacturing. GMP guidelines provide a comprehensive framework for pharmaceutical companies to ensure drugs are consistently produced and controlled according to quality standards. These guidelines cover various aspects, including facility design, equipment maintenance, personnel training, documentation, and quality control. Implementing GMP principles prevents contamination, cross-contamination, and other manufacturing-related issues that compromise drug safety and efficacy.

Quality Control and Quality Assurance 

Implementing stringent quality control and quality assurance measures is vital to ensure oncology drugs’ safety and quality. Regular testing and analysis of raw materials, intermediates, and finished products are essential to detect any potential impurities or deviations from predefined standards. Quality control laboratories equipped with state-of-the-art instruments and staffed by qualified personnel play a crucial role in this process. Additionally, quality assurance ensures that all manufacturing processes adhere to established guidelines and regulations, mitigating the risk of errors or substandard practices.

Supplier Qualification and Validation

Oncology drugs require close collaboration with trusted and reliable suppliers. Pharmaceutical companies must establish stringent qualification and validation processes for their suppliers, including thorough audits and assessments. This ensures that raw materials and components used in drug manufacturing meet the required quality standards and are free from contamination or adulteration.

Risk Assessment and Management 

A comprehensive risk assessment and management approach is essential to identify and mitigate potential risks throughout the oncology drug manufacturing process. This involves analyzing and evaluating all stages, from raw material sourcing to final product distribution. Identifying critical control points and implementing risk mitigation strategies prevent errors, contamination, and other hazards that compromise drug safety and quality. Regular audits and inspections, both internal and external, also contribute to maintaining the highest standards.

Continuous monitoring and improvement 

Oncology drug manufacturing safety and quality is an ongoing process that requires continuous monitoring and improvement. Pharmaceutical companies must establish robust systems for tracking adverse events, conducting post-marketing surveillance, and promptly addressing safety concerns. Continuous improvement initiatives, such as implementing updated technologies, optimizing manufacturing processes, and enhancing staff training, enhance drug safety and quality over time.


Oncology drugs play a crucial role in cancer treatments. However, ensuring the safety and quality of these drugs is of paramount importance to protect patients’ well-being and optimize treatment outcomes. Globela Pharma manufactures oncology drugs under all the necessary conditions to ensure the best quality. 

To achieve this goal, Globela Pharma adheres to regulatory standards, implements robust quality management systems, qualifies and validates suppliers, utilizes advanced analytical techniques, continuously improves processes, and provides comprehensive training and education. By adopting these strategies and best practices the company guarantees the production of safe, effective, and high-quality oncology drugs, ultimately benefiting patients and improving cancer treatment outcomes.